Jastrzębie, onagry pustyni, wilki Arabii. Sąsiedzi cesarstwa wschodniorzymskiego z Półwyspu Arabskiego i ich wizerunek w źródłach. Okres przedislamski : Nr XLII

Autorzy

Teresa Wolińska
Uniwersytet Łódzki
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2927-8922

Słowa kluczowe:

Arabowie, stereotypy, wizerunek, cesarstwo rzymskie, Bizancjum, historiografia

Streszczenie

Książka poświęcona została kształtowaniu się i ewolucji wizerunku mieszkańców Arabii w źródłach starożytnych i wczesnośredniowiecznych. Punktem wyjścia dla Autorki jest próba ustalenia, jaki obszar był w omawianej epoce traktowany jako Arabia, które etnosy uznawano za arabskie i jakimi nazwami je określano.  

Drugą część monografii otwiera rozdział na temat źródeł wiedzy Greków i Rzymian o Arabii i jej mieszkańcach. Następnie zaprezentowane zostały państwa i plemiona uznawane (słusznie lub nie) przez autorów starożytnych za arabskie oraz opinie tych ostatnich na temat mieszkańców Półwyspu Arabskiego. Autorka stara się wyjaśnić, z jakimi grupami plemiennymi i w jakich okolicznościach Grecy i Rzymianie utrzymywali kontakty i w jaki sposób płynęło to na sposób, w jaki postrzegali swych arabskich sąsiadów.  

Powyższe ustalenia stanowią bazę dla trzeciej części książki, poświęconej wizerunkowi Arabów w źródłach późnoantycznych i wczesnobizantyńskich. Nakreśliwszy przemiany sytuacji geopolitycznej w pierwszych wiekach naszej ery Autorka prezentuje kształtowanie się nowej sieci sojuszy ówczesnych mocarstw – cesarstwa wschodniorzymskiego (bizantyńskiego) i imperium perskiego – z plemionami arabskimi. Sporo uwagi poświęca kwestiom religijnym, wskazując na współistnienie wierzeń pogańskich, judaizmu i różnych nurtów chrześcijaństwa na Półwyspie Arabskim przed islamem. W obszernym rozdziale omawia wizerunek jego mieszkańców w różnojęzycznych tekstach autorów piszących w cesarstwie bizantyńskim. Wskazuje na trwałość niektórych opinii, mających często charakter stereotypów i powielanych przez Bizantyńczyków w ślad za autorami antycznymi, ale też na odmienne spojrzenie na arabskich sąsiadów, będące wynikiem chrystianizacji wielu spośród nich. Książkę uzupełniają biogramy wybranych przywódców arabskich.

Niniejsza książka powstała w ramach projektu sfinansowanego ze środków Narodowego Centrum Nauki, przyznanych na podstawie decyzji nr DEC-2016/23/B/HS3/01891 (Mahomet i narodziny islamu – stereotypy, wiedza i wyobrażenia w kręgu kultury bizantyńsko-ruskiej)

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